Sustainable Waste Management
India is the second largest country in the world by population after China. Population reached 1,210 million people counted at the last census in 2011, and 1,286 million has been estimated by the end of 2015 (Ministry of Home Affairs, 2011).
Due to rapid population and economic growth, the amount of MSW generated by Indian urban population has increased from 81.6 thousand TPD in 2001 to 144.8 thousand TPD in 2014 (CPCB, 2014). According to Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB, 2014), around 65% of all MSW waste generated in urban areas is collected and only 19% of all MSW waste generated was processed or treated. The remaining quantity of collected MSW waste is dumped into solid waste disposal sites without any treatment.
Disposal of untreated MSW waste has negative impact on environment, health, hygienic and aesthetic concerns.
As per a study conducted by EVI, there are 53 cities above 1 million populations and their contribution is more than 50% of the total GHG emissions from MSW waste disposal in urban India. The contribution is expected to reach 70% by 2030. During the same period MSW waste generation from these cities is expected to be doubled.
As per 2nd Indian National Communication to the UNFCCC, waste sector (Industrial waste water, domestic and commercial waste water, managed waste disposal on land) is the 4th largest contributor to GHG emissions after Energy, Agriculture and Industrial processes. Waste management by 3 R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) concept will not only reduce pressure on resources but it will make waste as resource for energy generation. However this practice of sustainable waste management requires policy formulation, suitable technology identification, mobilization of finance and capacity building among all stakeholders.
Sustainable Waste Management Projects Low carbon waste advisory
The objective of the prefeasibility study is to explore the possibilities of developing NAMAs in the Solid Waste Management (SWM) sector in India. This study analyses solid waste management policies, programmes and projects in India that could be implemented as a NAMA and would elaborate on already existing schemes that could be registered as domestic or supported NAMAs, the latter then seeking international assistance for implementation. The study further investigates existing baselines and business as usual (BAU) scenarios as well as other factors that influence the development of new SWM programmes and facilities in India.
EVI is providing a technical and financial analysis for opportunities and obstacles associated with various FS to energy processing options. This also involves identification of those processing options that offer the highest potential rate of return from resource recovery (i.e. energy, compost, water). EVI reviewed five waste to energy processes for technical and financial viability in urban India for FS as a primary feedstock. EVI also developed financial plug and play model for each waste to energy process. EVI is also providing detailed recommendations and reviews of specific companies that may be candidates for investments or potential technology development and commercialization partners in India for existing grantees.
The key objectives of the project include detailed market and business feasibility study for setting up a solid fuel production plant from septage/sewage in four cities (Ajmer, Udaipur, Varanasi and Jabalpur) in India. EVI team conducted site visits to four cities in order to understand the present status of sanitation and future plan for sewage management in the selected cities. EVI team interacted with various stakeholders like Authority from Municipal Corporation, City development authority, STP operators, technology suppliers, tank cleaning operators, manual scavengers to identify the key decision makers and understand the financial and operational issues related with sewage management. EVI team also interacted with other stakeholders like fuel suppliers and cement industries in order to understand the fuel supply chain in the city and estimate the fuel demand of consumers. This helped to map the demand of solid fuel generated from septage in nearby cement industries.
The project involves development of a NAMA proposal in solid waste management sector in Pakistan to facilitate submission to UNFCCC and other NAMA facilities such as UK-German NAMA facility and Global Environmental Facility. The work entails stakeholder consultations, technology need assessment for various cities, identify data gaps, revise & finalize NAMA application.
EVI team developed indicative sewage management plant for Inle lake in Mayanmar. EVI team visited the site and studied the present waste management practice and existing investment in waste management. This also includes recommendation on sewage to energy conversion and sewage to non energy conversion for Inle Lake.
The project involves evaluation of existing PoAs in waste sector registered with UNFCCC for their potential to become NAMAs. The key elements of project work include stakeholder analysis for NAMA implementation, policy analysis, estimation of BAU scenario and baseline emissions, analysis of technologies for their GHG potential, identification of barriers associated with implementation of waste management projects, design of MRV and assessing NAMA preparedness at the institutional level. It also looks at the financing needs and options to support NAMA development and implementation.
The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for the Asia and the Pacific (UN ESCAP), in partnership with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and Waste Concern, set up the Waste to Resource Fund (W2R) in 2011. The W2R invests in pro-poor and sustainable solid waste management projects that reduce greenhouse gases in developing countries and least developed countries (LDCs). W2R has identified pilot projects that can be clubbed and developed as a Program of Activity for LDCs. KfW’s PoA Support Center focuses on promoting CDM PoA in LDCs. The feasibility study assessed the technical, procedural and commercial feasibility of development of the PoA.
EVI provided support for assessment of economic feasibility of Program of Activities (PoA) developed for sustainable solid waste management projects in developing countries and LDCs by fund (Waste to Resource Fund-W2R) created by UNESCP, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Waste concern. The work also involved assessment of up scaling potential of PoAs, Assessment of Letter of Approval process in the targeted host countries, Assessment of the organizational set-up and implementation structure required for PoA and preparation of PIN for PoA.
EVI conducted technology assessment for mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and Pyrolysis technologies for poultry litter waste to energy project in Panchkula, Punjab, India. EVI also conducted the study for 5.6 MW waste to energy plant handling 600 tonnes of poultry waste in a day. The assessment involved conducting due diligence at pilot locations of the identified technology suppliers to examine operational data of the plants. EVI’s team studied the technical specification, determined performance standards for meeting performance guarantees, validated financial parameters including capital cost and O&M cost. EVI’s team also acquired land for the project proponents and also assisted in obtaining necessary regulatory approvals/clearances for the project (land use, water and environment).
EVI developed CDM project for Municipal Solid Waste processing plant set up by Jaiprakash Associates Ltd in Chandigarh. The facility entails MSW processing to derive Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), which shall be used in a thermal power plant of JAL group at Bagheri in Himachal Pradesh. The project is registered with UNFCCC.
The purpose of the TNA project is to assist Bhutan identify and analyze priority technology needs, which can form the basis for a portfolio of environmentally sound technology (EST) projects and programmes to facilitate the transfer of, and access to, the ESTs and know-how for addressing climate change under the Article 4.5 of the UNFCCC Convention. EVI is assisting the National Environment Commission to identify and prioritize through country-driven participatory stakeholder consultation processes, technologies that can contribute to mitigation and adaptation goals of the Bhutan while meeting its national sustainable development goals and priorities. EVI is also identifying barriers hindering the acquisition, deployment, and diffusion of prioritized technologies and developing Technology Action Plans (TAP) specifying activities and enabling frameworks to overcome the barriers and facilitate the transfer, adoption, and diffusion of selected technologies.
EVI developed CDM project for Municipal Solid Waste processing plant set up by EarthCare Nigeria Ltd in Lagos, Nigeria. The project activity involves production of high quality compost from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) by using advanced composting technology. The compost facility would processes 1500 tonnes of solid waste per day. The amount of emission reduction is 281,781 tCO2 per annum. The project is registered with UNFCCC with project reference no as 3841.
EVI developed CDM project for power generation from methane generated by anaerobic treatment of Spent-Wash produced by sugar unit. The project activity also led to methane avoidance which otherwise would been released to atmosphere. The amount of emission reduction is 44,729 tCO2 per annum. The project is registered with UNFCCC with project reference no as 0505.
EVI developed two CDM projects for flaring of biogas captured from anaerobic treatment of waste water or Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) generated from Palm oil mills in Indonesia. The purpose of the project activity was to flare methane that would have otherwise been emitted from open lagoons in the baseline. The amount of emission reduction is 21,675 tCO2 per annum for each project. The project is registered with UNFCCC with project reference no as 7423 and 7429.
EVI developed CDM program of activities (PoA) for distributed power generation systems in rural areas from gasification of agri-waste (rice husk) and/or solar power. The power generated from distributed units are supplied to the rural Households /communities with the end-use applications such as lighting (interior, public street lighting), electrical appliances such as refrigerators, agricultural water pumps, mobile recharging etc. The project is registered with UNFCCC with project reference no as 8864.
EVI conducted technology assessment for dendro based gasification power plant in Sri Lanka. EVI also detailed project report for 1.5 MW project. This included technical, financial, policy and social aspects related to the project activity. EVI’s team studied the technical specification, determined performance standards for meeting performance guarantees, validated financial parameters including capital cost and O&M cost. EVI’s team also acquired land and also set up 0.5 MW dendro base power plant in association with Ankur Scientific in Sri Lanka.
EVI conducted the technical and financial due diligent for agricultural residual based biomass power project in Bihar. EVI also procured 12 licenses for power plant in Bihar.
EVI developed CDM project for co-composting of biomass residues derived from a palm oil mill in Malaysia. The purpose of the project activity is to avoid methane emissions from anaerobic decomposition of organic waste and wastewater through controlled aerobic decomposition. The amount of emission reduction is 27,586 tCO2 per annum. The project is registered with UNFCCC with project reference no as 4841.
EVI developed CDM project for fuel switch from coal to biomass in cement manufacturing company in Malaysia. The amount of emission reduction is 61,946 tCO2 per annum. The project is registered with UNFCCC with project reference no as 0247.
EVI evaluated village level biogas management options using cow dung as feed. The key project objective was to create village level sustainable business model for waste management. The project activity entailed evaluation of technologies, financing mechanism including government subsidies, CSR funds from corporate, as well as carbon financing.