Smart Cities Introduction
The cities are engines of economic growth and therefore it is critical that they operate efficiently for economic development. Today, cities are experiencing problems due to rapid urbanization and migration from rural to urban areas. Urban population of India at 30% is at an inflexion point and it is expected to grow now rapidly and cross 50% level over the next two decades. By year 2030, 600 million people will be part of Urban India and will contribute to 75% of our GDP. This unprecedented, unsustainable and unplanned growth of cities has accelerated the rate of resource consumption. It has created a stress on the resources available to support a living i.e. housing, water availability, traffic and waste management and electricity. People residing in the megacities are also familiar with issues like congestion, air and water pollution, traffic congestion, which are threat to public health and safety. In order to solve these problems in cities, there is need to reshape cities smartly and intelligently by transcending megacities into Smart cities.
Understanding this scenario, Government of India under PM Shri Narendra Modi announced building of 100 Smart Cities all across the country. The smart city mission is not just limited to cities, but it also extended to include heritage cities, ports, armed forces, airports, railways and villages. For the first time, smart development has become the focus of GOI. The aim is to integrate technology into the system to offer more structured and hospitable living conditions for residents. The government has provided key developmental guidelines and parameters for Smart Cities with focus on quality of life, sustainable development and employment generation. Cities are required to submit Smart City Proposal consisting of Strategic Action Plan of various initiatives for area development by retrofitting, city redevelopment and city extension (Greenfield projects).
Concept of Smart cities has several verticals like smart transportation, smart waste management, Smart Energy, Smart Buildings etc. However, cities in India face different challenges compared to the west. The Indian megacities lack autonomous government, are managed by combination of state, city and municipal bodies and suffer from chronic under-investment. Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) are responsible for financial burdens of service delivery without power of revenue generation. Besides this, Indian cities are also facing major problems in commuting from one place to another and in managing the waste generated. Therefore, India, on such a nascent stage should mainly focus on Smart Governance, Smart Energy, Smart Transportation, and Smart Waste Management.
To solve above issues, government has proposed to create SPV for each smart city to be headed by CEO to drive the execution rather than municipal bodies. SPV will have nominees of state and center, representatives of municipal bodies and independent experts. The initial paid up capital in the SPV will be provided by Center and States. The plan also envisages large part of the payment from the private players in form of PPP for execution of plans.
Central Government has proposed an outlay of 48,000 Crores over five years i.e. an average of 100 Crores/Year/City. Same amount will have to be contributed by the state /ULB. Therefore nearly 1 Lac Crores will be spend on smart city development in next five years in India. Almost 90% of the funds will be utilised in pilot projects.
A smart city advisory forum will be established at the city level for all 100 smart cities to advice and collaboration amongst various stakeholders in the city. The CEO of the SPV will be the convener of the Smart City Forum. A state level high powered steering committee (HPSC) chaired by Chief Secretary will be formed at each state to monitor overall progress, provide guidance and intra state co-ordination.
National level monitoring will be done through Apex Committee (AC) and National Mission Directorate (NMD). AC to be headed by the MoUD Secretary will approve the proposals, monitoring progress and release the funds. NMD will provide necessary technical support in terms of blueprints development, stakeholder capacity building, best practice analysis and coordinate amongst states.
Emergent Ventures India, under its consultancy services provides in-depth techno-commercial knowledge assistance to financial institutions, governments and implementing agencies in each vertical of Smart Cities that is
Smart Cities Projects
Climate Change and Sustainability
EVI helped Indian National Ship-owners Association (INSA) to assess the financial impact of various market proposals on Indian ships. The research assignment involved conducting policy analysis and cost/benefit analysis of proposed carbon taxes and energy efficiency targets. Models were constructed to simulate each MBM and characteristics of Indian ship were fed into the model. This simulation tool was named as ‘FLEETS’. Energy efficiency measures along with their financial, energy and emissions impacts were also simulated for each MBM to find its impact on the ships’ financial performance. Different timelines for introduction of energy efficiency measures were simulated to find the most optimized schedules for energy efficiency option that ship owners could take.
High Global oil prices are likely to bring an increase in freight rates for shipping products via sea route. This may impact the Indian exporter’s overall logistics burden and may reduce their trade competitiveness by raising their total cost of products or reducing margins where they have to absorb additional transportation costs to remain competitive against competitors in countries that are near to importing countries which will in turn affects India's external trade. EVI is estimating this effect on India's external trade in terms of changes in external trade market shares and higher crude oil prices.
Low Carbon Transportation
Fuel quality plays a very important role to improve vehicle fuel efficiency and to meet the stringent air emission regulation. The study will help in formulating the road map of Auto Fuel Quality Standards until 2030.
EVI was engaged to create a tool so as to assess and integrate Climate Change concerns in Comprehensive Mobility Plan (CMP) of Indian cities. For creating the tool Jaipur was taken as a sample city. Jaipur city is India's one of the fastest growing city. Jaipur Development Authority has prepared a comprehensive mobility plan (CMP) to provide affordable transportation facilities for the city till 2030 which aims to solve access and mobility issues of its citizens.
The project includes the assessment of GHG reduction and co-benefits in terms of air pollution reduction, noise reduction, energy consumption reduction and safety improvements of Sustainable Urban Transport Projects (SUTP) in India in 5 cities. SUTP project being undertaken by Ministry of Urban Development, India is implementing BRT, NMT, ITS and Transit Oriented Development projects in 5 Indian cities namely Pimpri Chinchwad, Naya Raipur, Indore, Mysore and Hubli Dharwad. The project also involves capacity development of concerned project official and urban local bodies over period of three years for estimation of GHG and other co-benefits.
The project included the development of business case for smart meters rollout in India till 2025. The project was funded by DFID and Ministry of Power was key beneficiary of the project.
EVI provided consulting services to a private developer to plan a sustainable city in India. This model city intended to be India’s first sustainable city that is powered entirely by renewable sources of energy. The model lays stress on meeting the economic and aspirational needs of modern India while minimizing its impact on the environment. worked on designing this city’s concept and ensuring that sustainable development aspects formed key design parameters in city’s blueprint.
Assignment included assessment of potential of use of renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, bio-energy and waste to energy to meet energy requirements for an Indian city (Ujjain). This Indian city organises large religious festival every twelve years. City aims to make this upcoming event a climate friendly event.
Micro investor is an upcoming technology gaining traction in Europe and USA. The assignment aims to study micro-inverter technology and map market for the same in India. Assignment includes identifying potential applications and market size for micro inverter technology through primary and secondary survey. The assignment also includes identifying pilot project for micro invertors in India.
Sustainable Waste Management Projects
The key objectives of the project include detailed market and business feasibility study for setting up a solid fuel production plant from septage /sewage in four cities (Ajmer, Udaipur, Varanasi and Jabalpur) in India. EVI team conducted site visits to four cities in order to understand the present status of sanitation and future plan for sewage management in the selected cities. EVI team interacted with various stakeholders like Authority from Municipal Corporation, City development authority, STP operators, technology suppliers, tank cleaning operators, manual scavengers to identify the key decision makers and understand the financial and operational issues related with sewage management. EVI team also interacted with other stakeholders like fuel suppliers and cement industries in order to understand the fuel supply chain in the city and estimate the fuel demand of consumers. This helped to map the demand of solid fuel generated from septage in nearby cement industries.
EVI is providing a technical and financial analysis for opportunities and obstacles associated with various Fecal Sludge (FS) to energy processing options. This also involves identification of those processing options that offer the highest potential rate of return from resource recovery (i.e. energy, compost, water). EVI reviewed five “waste to energy” processes for technical and financial viability in urban India for FS as a primary feed stock. EVI also developed financial plug and play model for each waste to energy process. EVI is also providing detailed recommendations and reviews of specific companies that may be candidates for investments or potential technology development and commercialization partners in India for existing grantees.